A. Define and contrast: idealism, neutralism, materialism, and Cartesian dual


A. Define and contrast: idealism, neutralism, materialism, and Cartesian dualism. Which view of metaphysics do you find to be most accurate? Explain your reasons.
B. According to Plato, what did Socrates think was the inherent problem in divine command theory? Also, what problem did Socrates see in Euthyphro’s answer about why he was bringing charges against his own father? Explain your answer.
C. What did Socrates mean when he stated, according to Plato, “The unexamined life is not worth living”? Was Socrates right to anger the jury by telling them his interpretation of the Oracle’s words? Explain your answer.
D. Define and contrast: virtue ethics, emotivism, divine-command theory, utilitarianism, and deontology. Which philosophers from our lectures do you think were virtue ethicists? Which were utilitarians? Which was a deontologist? Which of the ethical theories do you think is correct, or closest to your own view? Explain your answer.
E. Compare the differences in the political philosophies of Hobbes and Locke. How were their perspectives on the state of nature different? What was the difference in their conceptions of the social contract?
F. Explain the differences in the metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics of Plato and Aristotle. How do these differences match up to the famous picture of Plato and Aristotle from Raphael’s “School of Athens” painting in Figure 1.3 of your book?
G. Name three Hellenistic philosophies and describe the difference in their views. Also, explain which were hedonists, which considered virtue to be necessary and sufficient for happiness, and which considered that social conventions were worthless? Which considered knowledge to be nearly unattainable?
H. Explain the dialectical materialism of Karl Marx. Where did he get this concept of the dialectic? What conflict pervaded all of human history for Marx? How was this different from Hegel’s view?
I. What was Hume’s fork, and what did Kant think was wrong about this epistemology? Also explain the differences in Hume’s and Kant’s ethical theories, especially Hume’s view about reason and emotion, as well as Kant’s categorical imperative.
J. Explain the differences in Locke and Berkeley’s metaphysical positions that were discussed in the lectures. How did Berkeley think that an empiricist epistemology made atheism impossible?
K. Explain Nietzsche’s epistemological and ethical perspectives. What did he think of “truth”? How were the different types of morality different? Do you think Nietzsche was right about truth and ethics? Explain why or why not.


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