Post 1 Discuss the difference that may appear in child therapies with your chose

Post 1
Discuss the difference that may appear in child therapies with your chosen therapy style?
Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are well established, highly researched evidence-based treatments, and are considered to be the gold standard mental health treatment for various disorders, including depression in both children and adults. Assessment of children is almost similar to adults but must be tailored to child’s presentation and developmental milestones. Therapists using CBT with children must recognize that social, cognitive, developmental, and linguistic complexities of children may limit the efficacy of therapeutic interventions (Kerns et al., 2022). In addition, there other concepts that must be considered during child therapies; these are developmental considerations, family involvement, the child’s system surround (school, peers, and community) and resiliency (Wheeler, 2021).
How would you alter your techniques when treating children?
An interdisciplinary team approach is necessary when treating children. This team must include parents and/or caregivers, as parent/caregiver involvement is particularly beneficial for children, as their participation may support the delivery of interventions which may help to improve treatment outcomes. Incorporating the child’s special interests, strengths and emphasizing parent participation have been suggested as important to include in treatment protocols for youth (Kerns et al., 2022). Challenges with motivation, social understanding and imagination, atypical ways of demonstrating or reporting symptoms, difficulties with self-regulation, the presence of rigid thought processes, and poor generalization abilities may all impede the therapeutic understanding of children. To address these challenges, common modifications to CBT protocols for children have been developed. They include concrete and visual teaching strategies, multiple choice lists, drawing, creative outlets for expression and video demonstrations for hard-to-teach concepts. A family-focused group CBT program developed specifically for children, allows for the presence of additional co-occurring mental health symptoms (McGuire et al., 2021).
Psychoeducation regarding symptoms and CBT strategies, parent coaching to support child participation, discussion of the interaction between parent, parenting style and the maintenance of symptoms, and discussion of the social and communicative challenges and how these challenges may contribute to symptoms will all need to be discussed (Kerns et al., 2022). Additional techniques (depending on child’s development and cognition), include use of worksheets, written examples of core concepts, hands-on activities, emphasis on creative outlets for expression, focus on strengths and special interests and multiple opportunities for repetition and practice (McGuire et al., 2021).
Discuss the needs of senior adults and how therapy may need a different delivery than other adults.
The aging process may impact therapy and therapeutic interventions with older adults. Comorbidities, functional status, polypharmacy, certain medications, and cognitive issues can mask or overlap mental health symptoms. Therefore, it is necessary for therapists to consider psychological interventions with older adults in the context of lifespan developmental theories, as well as age associated gains and losses, socioeconomic and cultural aspects, generational influences, and family support (Wheeler, 2021). Just as in the treatment of children, several informants may have to be consulted in other to obtain a thorough client history. Therapy may have to be adapted in frequency, content, medium and length depending on several factors. Steel & Newton states that “adaptation involves the incorporation of gerontological theories to guide the conceptualization and focus of therapy, such as an age-appropriate augmented approach to CBT” (2022, p. 107). For example, when an older adult is engaging in CBT, the length of the phases may need to be extended to accommodate the functional and cognitive status of the patient, to develop a concrete therapeutic alliance and to accomplish the goals of therapy. The therapist will need to continually assess the client to determine whether an intervention requires modifications or adaptions in order to maximize treatment benefits (Morthland et al., 2020).
Are there senior adults that would not benefit from therapy?
Specific therapies may be of little benefit to some older adults, for example a client with end stage dementia or a client with little to no executive function may not be able to participate in CBT but may benefit from music therapy (Lederman & Shefler, 2022). However, there is reason to believe that there is a possibility for everyone to benefit from therapy. Problem adaptation therapy (PATH) is home-delivered psychotherapy based on problem solving therapy (PST) that involves caregiver participation, that has been shown to significantly reduce depression and improve functioning among older adults with comorbid depression, cognitive impairment, and disability. In addition, studies on art therapy and dementia care found that older adults with cognitive impairment involved in the creative arts program showed more interest, pleasure, self-esteem, and sustained attention. This can translate into improved quality of life for the client (Steele & Newton, 2022).
Post 2
Discuss the difference that may appear in child therapies with your chosen therapy style? How would you alter your techniques when treating children?
There are four key differences one must consider when providing therapy to children.
Developmental Considerations: The APRN must keep in mind the child’s developmental stage. From ages 2-7, the child is in the preoperational stage where they think symbolically. From ages 7-11, the child is in the concrete operational stage where they think in a concrete manner. Finally, from ages 12+, the child is in the formal operational stage where they can think abstractly (Wheeler, 2022).
Family Inclusion: Parents must be included in the treatment plan of a child (Wheeler, 2022).
Interacting with the systems in the child’s life: The APRN needs to include the family, schools, and community in the treatment plan (Wheeler, 2022).
Resiliency: In adults the concept of healing is the end goal of therapy. With children, resiliency is the end goal. Therapy looks to address maladaptive behaviors, enhance a child’s strengths, and augment a child’s weaknesses (Wheeler, 2022).
For children 8+, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the preferred therapy. Much like CBT in an adult patient, CBT looks to provide cognitive restructuring, behavioral activation, and problem-solving skills. With children, treatment manuals and highly structured sessions are used to accomplish this. The end goal is to help the child regulate his behavior and emotions, stay connected to their school, family, peers, and community, and provide real world socioeconomic skills (Wheeler, 2022).
For preschool age children, play therapy is effective for treatment of mental health issues. Different techniques have been developed based on the diagnosis and symptoms the child is facing. Play can help the child know themselves and their environment, develop social and developmental skills, express their ideas, gain control, and develop self-knowledge. During play, therapist can learn about their patient and communicate with them. From there, they can help them develop and gain resiliency (Genc, 2021).
Discuss the needs of senior adults and how therapy may need a different delivery than other adults.
When treating seniors, one must consider comorbid conditions, social isolation, and limitations. However, accommodations can be made for most patients. One may need to allow for extended sessions and be cognizant of vision and hearing difficulties. Since seniors may not be used to identifying thoughts and feels, the learning sessions of CBT may need to be increased requiring more sessions overall. Instead of writing, patients may need to record their thoughts (Wheeler, 2022).
Accommodations can also be made seniors with a mental decline such as dementia. Homework can be done in the therapy session (Wheeler, 2022). CBT has been proven to help patients with dementia who also have depression and anxiety. The key accommodation that may need to be considered is language as CBT is a language-based therapy (Stott, 2018).
Are there senior adults that would not benefit from therapy?
The only group I don’t feel will benefit from therapy are those with end stage dementia. These patients cannot engage in therapy and may not even be able to talk. At that point, therapy needs to focus on the caregivers.

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